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Vigor Dt Fonts 15 !!BETTER!!

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Vigor Dt Fonts 15

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Abstract:The discovery of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has filled a great gap in our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation in a variety of biological processes related to plant stress responses. However, systematic analyses of the lncRNAs expressed in rice seeds that germinate under cold stress have been elusive. In this study, we performed strand-specific whole transcriptome sequencing in germinated rice seeds under cold stress and normal temperature. A total of 6258 putative lncRNAs were identified and expressed in a stage-specific manner compared to mRNA. By investigating the targets of differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs of LT-I (phase I of low temperature)/NT-I (phase I of normal temperature), it was shown that the auxin-activated signaling pathway was significantly enriched, and twenty-three protein-coding genes with most of the members of the SAUR family located in chromosome 9 were identified as the candidate target genes that may interact with five lncRNAs. A seed vigor-related lncRNA, SVR, which interplays with the members of the SAUR gene family in cis was eventually identified. The CRISPR/Cas 9 engineered mutations in SVR cause delay of germination. The findings provided new insights into the connection between lncRNAs and the auxin-activated signaling pathway in the regulation of rice seed vigor.Keywords: rice; lncRNA; seed vigor; low temperature; SAUR

Alfa Slab One is a contemporary take on the Six-lines Pica Egyptian created by Robert Thorne for the Thorowgood Foundry in 1921. Although initially based on that model, Alfa Slab One was designed with an extreme stem weight, big serifs, more stem contrast and gradual terminals with a single serif. JM Solé designed this and published it through google fonts.

Heterosis breeding is the most useful method for yield increase around the globe. Heterosis is an intriguing process to develop superior offspring to either parent in the desired character. The biomass vigor produced during seedling emergence stage has a direct influence on yield heterosis in plants. Unfortunately, the genetic basis of early biomass vigor in cotton is poorly understood.

Through genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis, we strongly predict that overdominance at gene expression level plays a pivotal role in early biomass vigor of hybrids. The combinational contribution of circadian rhythm and other metabolic process may control vigorous growth in hybrids. Our result provides an important foundation for dissecting molecular mechanisms of biomass vigor in hybrid cotton.

We designed this study to understand the genetic basis of early biomass vigor in intraspecific hybrid cotton. Most of past studies focused on a single hybrid and both parents to analyze gene expression differences. However, we sequenced root and leaf tissues of three contrasting hybrids together with their inbred parents for better understanding the genetic aspects. Through genome-wide comparative transcriptome analysis, we aimed to identify DEGs, gene expression patterns, and overview the biological pathways that mediate early biomass vigor in cotton. Our result provides a foundation to understand the preliminary biological basis of biomass heterosis. Furthermore, these data resources will be important to find candidate genes of biomass vigor in hybrid cotton in the future.

The results of KEGG revealed that most of the overdominant genes of high, medium and low hybrids relative to their parents were enriched in similar pathways. We performed comparison analysis between high, medium and low hybrids to see unique and common overdominant expressed genes in the above mentioned pathways. The results showed that 44 genes in leaf and 29 genes in root were common in comparison of all hybrids (Additional file 28: Figure S4: Additional file 23). On the other hand, many genes were also overlapped between comparisons of two hybrids. The reason behind these results might be the common female parent in hybrids. The expression level of genes that showed overdominant expression in all hybrids relative to their inbred parents is presented in Fig. 5. We found most of root genes were belonging to circadian rhythm, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and porphyrin & chlorophyll metabolism, while leaf genes were enriched in circadian rhythm, plant hormone signal transduction, and carbon metabolism. Majority of these genes were involved in functions related to DNA binding, oxidation-reduction process, heme binding, and response to oxidative stress (Additional file 29: Figure S5). We presumed phenomenal changes in these pathways associated genes may be transformed biomass vigor in hybrids of cotton.

Through compression analysis between hybrids, we found circadian rhythm plant pathway contained many overdominant genes in root and leaf of all hybrids. Genes in this pathway had tissue-specific expression except of three (Gh_A12G1061, Gh_A12G1062, and Gh_D12G1185). In this pathway, six genes (Gh_A11G0926, Gh_A12G1061, Gh_A12G1062, Gh_D12G1185, Gh_D12G1184, and Gh_D11G1068) related to MYB domain transcription factor, encoding LHY protein showed downregulation in root of hybrids (Additional file 30: Figure S6). In contrast, five genes (Gh_A12G1061, Gh_A12G1062, Gh_D12G1185, Gh_A09G1504, and Gh_D09G1515) encoding LHY protein showed downregulated expression in leaf of hybrids. The results indicated four genes (Gh_A08G0451, Gh_D01G0200, Gh_D07G0867, and Gh_D11G1518) associated with transcript factor CO-like showed upregulation in leaf of hybrids (Additional file 30: Figure S6). Genes (Gh_A05G0944 and Gh_D05G1029) named as CIA2 (CHLOROPLAST IMPORT APPARATUS 2) associated with PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9) also showed similar results in leaf of hybrids (Additional file 29: Figure S5). In addition to circadian rhythm, several genes (Gh_A03G0944, Gh_A09G1415, Gh_A11G1859, Gh_A12G1915, and Gh_D02G1327) in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis related to peroxidase superfamily protein, and many genes from porphyrin &chlorophyll metabolism showed upregulated expressions in root of hybrids. Furthermore, many genes of plant hormone signal transduction pathways linked to AUX/IAA transcriptional regulator family protein and genes from carbon metabolism pathway also found with downregulated expressions in leaf of hybrids. To be concise, all these results suggest genes in circadian rhythm together with other metabolic process performed overdominance that might change root and leaf growth, and ultimately lead to altered biomass vigor in hybrid cotton.

In this study, three intraspecific upland cotton hybrids varying in yield heterosis named as high (H), medium (M) and low (L) hybrids and their inbred parents were used to investigate early biomass heterosis. According to the results of the field evaluation, these hybrids showed phenotypic heterosis in biomass accumulation than both parents during the early stage of seedlings growth. More biomass accumulation in high hybrid possibly related to more efficiency in nutrient uptake and photosynthetic process. Moreover, early growth advantages seem to be important to achieve heterosis in other traits. A previous research found intraspecific hybrid plants produced extreme phenotypes than both parents in the diversity of traits such as morphology, physiology, and biochemical attributes of tissues or organs [42]. A study in rice measuring the seedling traits observed that hybrids showed mid and better parent heterosis in all seedling traits expect height [30]. Wheat hybrids showed strong hybrid vigor compared to both inbred lines during the seedling stage [34]. Increased cotyledon size was recorded even a few days after sowing in Arabidopsis hybrids [43].

As a genetic perspective, the root and leaf transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate large scale cDNA sequence data and profile transcriptome changes in contrasting hybrids and their inbred parents. The trancriptomic data uncovered that total number of expressed genes were somehow higher in hybrids than all parents especially in root. More expressed genes in hybrids may have a relationship with an altered role in the diversity of key functions including anchorage the plant, absorption of water and nutrients, photosynthetic process, and many other metabolic processes. Root arises first from radical, so more expressed genes may be having a correlation with more functional changes during the early stage. The root vigor during early stages of seedling growth has been documented in hybrids of maize and wheat [44, 45]. In this study, comparative analysis among hybrids and parents showed many DEGs in hybrids compared with either parent in both root and leaf tissues. However, comparisons of parents had only limited number of DEGs, thus indicating similarity in their genomic constituent. These results predict crossing of genetically similar inbred lines leads to changes in the genetic organization of hybrids. At the early stages of growth, these changes caused differential expression of genes as a consequence biomass heterosis has witnessed in hybrids. The results of many recent studies reported differences in genomic expressions between hybrids and parental lines have a direct relationship with the level of heterosis [46, 47]. Therefore, superior performance is supposed to be the result of global differences of gene expressions between homozygous inbred lines and heterozygous hybrids. 350c69d7ab


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